Raw materials used to produce recycled paper
1 VIRGIN CELLULOSE
This is the main raw material used to produce paper and is mainly obtained from trees such as conifers, birch and eucalyptus. Since 2005, Fedrigoni has been using FSC® certified pulp and from 2014 exclusively using FSC® certified pulp.
2 RECYCLED FIBRE
This material is selected by waste collection centres and is re-processed for re-use to produce paper. These fibres cannot be recycled indefinitely, only up to 7 times, since they become too weak and too short to create new products.
2.1 PRE-CONSUMER WASTE
Includes offcuts arising directly from processing operations in the paper mill itself. Fedrigoni rationalises and optimises the re-use of in-house production waste, thereby providing clean, "zero km" materials for recycling. Alternatively, fibres coming from printed or unprinted papers which, have not reached the end of their useful life cycle, like unsold newspaper returns, remaindered books and publications, as well as print waste. This material is collected and re pulped.
2.2 POST-CONSUMER WASTE
Fibres, coming from a product after it has been used for the purposes for which it was intended, both individually and collectively, and which has reached the end of its useful life cycle. The material may not be consistent and may also contain other unsuitable products. This material can only be reused to produce special papers after a de-inking process and using chemicals with high energy expenditure.
Since 2015 FSC , in the FSC-DIR-40-004 to the ADVICE-40-004-13 recommendation, recognises the equivalence between Pre-Consumer Waste and Post-Consumer Waste.
The graph below shows the environmental impact of each material.
The samples included in this kit were produced in our own paper mills with the aim of making them as comparable as possible. The table lists values for each sample.
The table below outlines the printing performance of all three samples. The tests were performed by an independent certified institute.
- 100% Virgin cellulose
- 60% Virgin cellulose — 40% Post-consumer waste
- 100% Post-consumer waste
POST - CW
The relationship between thickness and weight. Depending on this value, papers are suitable for different uses.
AIR RESISTANCE / AIR PERMEABILITY
Lower porosity ensures better printing definition.
BENDING STIFFNESS MACHINE DIRECTION
Better folding strength means that the paper is more resistant and therefore suitable for creasing and packaging products.
BENDING STIFFNESS CROSS DIRECTION
Better folding strength means that the paper is more resistant and therefore suitable for creasing and packaging products
The higher the value, the better the brightness of the substrate and the colour rendering during printing.
This coordinate represents the lightness of paper
Light exposure test
This laboratory analysis simulates the yellowing of paper following a prolonged period of exposure to light. Paper made from pure virgin fibre is distinctly less sensitive than samples containing fibre from post-consumer waste.
Laboratory tests confirm that: paper made of 100% virgin fibre pulp ensures maximum performance levels. In particular: it is distinctly brighter and its folding strength is 3 times higher.
When choosing a PCW paper, it is therefore good practice to bear in mind:
- lower folding and creasing strength, with a high risk of failure in the printing press;
- the direction of the fibres is unstable;
- imperfections in the paper;
- less stability over time;
- problems such as non-uniformity of colour between different production batches;
- lower light fastness
Test: Printing quality analysis
In more detail:
Tonal Value Sum - TVS
This instrument-based analysis is used to compare how much ink can be applied to paper and if the paper is capable of turning it into differences in colour.
The L* value, at the TVS point 300 indicated by the standards, is higher for paper with 100% wood-free pulp, while it is lower for 60% wood-free - 40% PCW paper and even poorer for 100% PCW. This means that paper made using 100% wood-free pulp, at the same colour coverage, ensures deeper "blacks".
In more detail:
Tonal instrument analysis carried out by comparing standard targets printed with oxidative inks on the three different papers, whose measurement allowed to create the three ICC profiles and the three gamuts.
In more detail:
Register management highlights how different types of paper may provide higher or lower levels of printing stability.
In more detail:
Reproducing the screen dot
Measurement of printed screens to verify the response of AM screening with different types of printing as well as the deviation in the tonal reproduction curve from the standard. The images show how the screen dot is reproduced on the printed media: a sharper screen dot creates sharper printing results with better contrast.
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